NeuPy supports many different neural network architectures. They can be divided into two categories.

  1. Neural networks with constructible architecture.
  2. Neural networks with fixed architecture.

As the name suggests, constructible architectures can be build using layers as building blocks and it has to be specified by the user. To another type belong networks with fixed architecture. There are many different networks like RBM, PNN, CMAC. These networks have predefined architecture and there is no way to add or remove layers from it.


Initialization process is slightly different for networks with fixed and constructible architectures. Networks with fixed architecture have predefined structure and we need just to specify algorithm-specific parameters.

from neupy import algorithms
sofm = algorithms.SOFM(n_inputs=2, n_outputs=4)

Notice, that we explicitly specified argument names during initialization. NeuPy doesn’t have defined order for the arguments and it will raise exception when there is no names associated with each argument.

# Invalid initialization, because every additional
# argument require to have name specified explicitly
sofm = algorithms.SOFM(2, 4)

In contrast, network with constructible architectures require two basic steps. First, you need to define structure of the network. For example:

from neupy.layers import *
network = Input(10) >> Relu(5) >> Softmax(4)

When architecture defined we need to specify training algorithm. The initialization looks exactly the same as the one that we’ve seen for networks with fixed architectures. The only difference is that we have to specify our network structure as the first argument.

from neupy import algorithms
optimizer = algorithms.Momentum(network, step=0.1, nesterov=True)

These two steps can be combined into one for simplicity.

from neupy import layers, algorithms

optimizer = algorithms.Momentum(


Training looks the the same for all algorithms, with few exceptions for different algorithms, so you should refer to the documentation before training, in case you’re not familiar with the API.

To train neural network we need to use the train method (or fit which was added for scikit-learn compatibility).

optimizer.train(x_train, y_train, epochs=1000)

If we need to validate our training results with validation dataset we can pass it as an additional argument (that option available for most of the algorithms, but not all of them).

optimizer.train(x_train, y_train, x_test, y_test, epochs=1000)

To be able to see the output after each epoch we can set up verbose=True during network’s initialization.

from neupy import algorithms
optimizer = algorithms.Momentum(network, verbose=True)

Or we can switch on verbose parameter after the initialization.

from neupy import algorithms

optimizer = algorithms.Momentum(network, verbose=False)
optimizer.verbose = True
optimizer.train(x_train, y_train, x_test, y_test, epochs=1000)


To make a prediction we need to pass networks input to the predict method. This method can be called from the optimizer or network directly.

y_predicted = network.predict(x_test)
y_predicted = optimizer.predict(x_test)

When inputs are to big it’s possible to specify size of the batch of samples that will be propagated throught the network at once. At the end outputs will be combined into single array.

y_predicted = network.predict(x_test, batch_size=16)
y_predicted = optimizer.predict(x_test, batch_size=16)